Dr Ian Hay
Diarrhoea & Vomiting in Children
Updated: May 2, 2019
It can be very concerning to see your baby or child having bouts of diarrhoea and vomiting. This helpful information aims to explain some of the more common causes and strategies to help you alleviate your child’s symptoms.
Vomiting usually last 1-2 days. Diarrhoea usually lasts 5-7 days
Most babies have occasional loose stools or faeces (poo) and breastfed babies normally have looser stools than formula-fed babies.
Diarrhoea in a baby describes frequent, repeated passing of unformed, watery stools.
Toddlers and older children
Some children between the ages of one and five pass frequent, smelly, loose stools that may contain recognisable foods, such as carrots and peas. Usually, these children are otherwise perfectly healthy and are growing normally. The diarrhoea may be due to drinking too much cordial or sugary drinks, but you should check with your doctor. Sometimes the doctor can’t find any cause.
Causes of diarrhoea and vomiting in children
Diarrhoea and vomiting may be caused by many different things, including:
a stomach bug
eating something you may have an allergy to.
Treatments for diarrhoea and vomiting in children
Babies and toddlers
Diarrhoea and vomiting is more serious in babies than older children because babies can easily lose too much fluid from their bodies and become dehydrated. Signs of dehydration are:
a sunken soft spot (fontanelle) on a baby’s head
few or no tears when they cry
a dry mouth
fewer wet nappies
dark yellow urine
If your baby becomes dehydrated they will need extra fluids. If you are breastfeeding, keep offering feeds but feed more often. If you are bottle feeding, offer clear fluids in between feeds. You can also give an oral rehydration fluid from your local pharmacy or chemist, or get a prescription from your doctor.
Seek urgent medical attention if your baby is unwell and showing any of the following:
has a temperature
has blood or mucus in their poo
has green vomit
has severe abdominal pain
not passing much urine
vomiting has lasted more than a day
I your child drinks nothing
If your child vomits everything
You are concerned
Do not give your baby or toddler anti-diarrhoeal drugs (not prescribed by the doctor) as they may be dangerous,
Your child will have large, runny, frequent or watery faeces (poos). The colour of the poo might vary from brown to green, and the smell can be quite offensive.
Diarrhoea might also be associated with stomach cramps or pain.
Contact your doctor or go to your local emergency department if your child has:
bad diarrhoea (8-10 watery motions or 2-3 larger motions a day) signs of dehydration
diarrhoea and is vomiting at the same time
frequent vomiting and can’t keep down any fluids
diarrhoea that is particularly watery
diarrhoea that has blood or mucus in it
diarrhoea that lasts for longer than 10 days
diarrhoea and you are concerned
bad stomach pain
Diarrhoea and vomiting self care
If your child has diarrhoea and vomiting there are a number of things you can do to help manage their condition. Here is some self-help information:
Feeding and meal times
Breast and bottle fed babies should continue to be given their normal feeds (at normal strength).
If your child is on solid foods, be guided by their appetite. There is no evidence that fasting benefits someone with diarrhoea and vomiting.
If your baby is under one year old, you should try to give them more fluids to avoid them becoming dehydrated.
Older children should eat normally. Foods high in carbohydrates, like bread, potatoes, pasta and rice are good, and soup will also help replace fluids.
Maintain good personal hygiene.
With formula-fed babies, make sure that bottles are sterilised carefully.
Encourage your child to drink their usual amount of fluids. Children lose fluids through vomiting so your child will require extra.
Specially prepared children’s rehydration drinks can be bought from your local pharmacy. Always follow the instructions on the packet.
If your child refuses rehydration drinks try diluting fruit juice with water.
Sports drinks and energy drinks should be avoided as a rehydration fluid option.
Don't give your child any medicines to stop diarrhoea without medical advice.
Antibiotics are not usually given to treat diarrhoea and vomiting, as the cause of the condition is often due to a virus. Antibiotics only work on fighting bacteria and not viruses.
Keep your child away from other children while your child is unwell.
Hygiene and cleanliness
For babies and children who wear nappies, a barrier cream may help to prevent soreness or nappy rash developing.
Ensure your child’s bottom is cleaned gently and thoroughly, after each episode of diarrhoea to avoid irritation to the skin.
Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and warm running water to prevent the spread of infection. Dry your hands thoroughly but do not share towels as this can spread an infection. Wash your hands:
Before handling food, including babies’ bottles
After going to the toilet or changing your child’s nappy
After cleaning up blood, faeces or vomit
After wiping a nose, either your child’s or your own
After handling garbage
Clean surfaces – washing with detergent and water is a very effective way of removing germs from surfaces you have touched.
Do not share personal items – your child should use their own personal items, such as towels, toothbrushes, flannels or face cloths.
If your child has diarrhoea, organise a separate toilet to other people if possible and clean it with disinfectant after use.
Do not take your child swimming until two weeks after their last episode of diarrhoea or vomiting.
If your child has diarrhoea or vomiting they should not go to school or day care for 24 hours after their last episode of either.
If your child has been diagnosed with Norovirus, or has diarrhoea and vomiting following contact with someone else with Norovirus, disinfect any surface that may have been contaminated.
Immediately remove and wash clothing or bedding contaminated with diarrhoea or vomit.
If your child has diarrhoea or vomiting, they may feel tired and irritable. Always place your baby on their back in their cot to sleep, as this position reduces the risk of Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy.
Dr Ian Hay